Biology 31

Introduction to the Science of Biology

Spring, 2011

 Required materials  Ground Rules  Laboratory schedule
 Evaluation  Lecture/Discussion schedule  Back to page 1

Strongly Recommended Course Prerequisites: Math 65/65B/65Y and eligibility for Eng 1A or 52A

Instructor: K. Pihl (Mrs.)

Office Hours: 1:55-2:20 T,Th, in 1806; or by appointment.

Phone No.: 925-424-1000 ext. 2059. This is a voice mail box which I rarely check. It's better to send an email.



Required Materials:

1. Mader S, Isaacson J A, Lyle-Ippolito K G, Storfer A T . Inquiry into life. 13th ed. New York(NY) : McGraw-Hill; 2011. $183.00 N, $137.25 U. $89.2 Rental. $15.00 ASLPC Rental Program. You may use the 12th edition, but the page/chapter numbers will be different. The syllabus from spring, 2010 has the correct page numbers. An old edition is on reserve in the LRC.

2. Adams J. Biology 31 Laboratory Manual. You need this on the day of the first laboratory. $27.75 N.

3. Scan-Tron Answer Sheets, 8-20 question, 3-100 question, 2-200 question. ,

4. Access to a computer with internet.

5. Small ruler for the lab.

6. Unipak. $8.99

Recommended Materials:

1. Perry J W, Morton D, Yoder W A. Photo atlas for biology. Belmont (CA): Wadsworth; 1996. This book is strongly recommended. $50.25 N, $37.75 U, $24.50 Rental.

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(Subject to Modification)

Week of


Text Chapter or Page Nos.

1/18 Introduction  

Scientific Method--How we arrive at the facts.

Slide/Tape--The Scientific Method

pp. 10-14

2/1, 2/8

The cell--What's inside and how we know.

How things get in and out of cells.

Videotape--Discovering the Cell (MV21340)

Videotape--Diffusion and Osmosis (MV23339), 16 min

ch. 3-4
**2/4 Last day for NGR in person, 2/6 via CLASS-Web  
2/15, 2/22

A little chemistry

Videotape--The Genetic Code and its Translation (MV 23460)

ch. 2, pp. 501-510  



Hour Examination #1

Bring a 100 question green Scan-Tron, #2 pencil, eraser. Questions are from lecture and text only, not from the laboratory.


Homeostasis--Keeping things constant

Videotape--Homeostasis: Maintaining the Body's Internal Environment (MV 21198), Homeostasis (MV 21983)

pp. 207-209
3/8 Movement of materials. ch. 12, pp. 235-238

How oxygen enters (and carbon dioxide leaves).

ch. 15
3/22, 3/29 Waste removal ch. 16



Hour Examination #2

Bring a 100 question Scan-Tron, #2 pencil, eraser. Questions are from lecture and text only.

**3/31 Faculty Flex Day, no class or lab.  
4/5, 4/12 Patterns of inheritance ch. 23, 24
**4/8 Last Day For 'W' in person or via CLASS-Web  
**4/18-4/23 HOLIDAYS  
4/26, 5/3 DNA--why we are the way we are. How proteins are made. ch. 25



Hour Examination #3

Bring a 200 question Scan-Tron, a #2 pencil, an eraser. Questions are from lecture and the text only.


5/10, 5/17


How life began and evolved. ch. 27




The final covers the entire semester but emphasizes material covered since the last exam. Bring a 200-question Scan-Tron, a #2 pencil, an eraser.


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(Subject to Modification)
Reading the labs in advance is highly recommended








You must wear shoes with closed toes and closed heels to lab.


1 1/18 1/20

How to Use a Microscope

Living Cells (VMV 20996)



EC pre-lab quiz


Microscopic Study of Cells

Cone observation exercise

QUIZ #1. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020.

Bring the photo atlas and a ruler today.



pre-lab quiz 1


Chemistry for Biology Students

Goggles must be worn.



pre-lab quiz 2


Unicellular Organisms

Microscope review and scheduling of quizzes. (Scheduled beginning at 2:00)

QUIZ #2. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020.

Bring the photo atlas and a ruler today.

Distribute Macromolecules lab.

5 2/15 2/17

QUIZ #3. Micrcroscope Lab Practical. Come at your scheduled appointment time.



pre-lab quiz 3



Goggles must be worn.



pre-lab quiz 4


Cell Division and Specialization

QUIZ #4. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020.

Videotape--Generations: Mitosis and Meiosis (MV22267).

Lecture on meiosis and mitosis.

Prior to this lab you should read pages 81-97 in your text.

Bring your text, photo atlas and a ruler to lab today.

Deadline for approval of extra-credit report articles is during the first fifteen minutes of this week's lab. You must bring the original or a photocopy of the entire article. No approval will be granted without the article. Minimum length is three pages. More points are awarded for more difficult articles. The quality of the presentation affects the number of points awarded. Newspaper and everyday magazine articles are not acceptable. Ordinary website information is also not acceptable. Website material must be from an online journal. The reports will be presented next week in lab.

5, pages 5-1 to 5-4


pre-lab quiz 5


Cell Division and Specialization (continued). Prelab. To be completed on your own.

QUIZ #5. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020.

Extra-credit oral reports. Turn in a copy of the original article.

Prior to this lab you should read pages 193-200, 222-227, 517-520 in your text.

Bring your text, photo atlas and a ruler to lab today.

You may have to complete this lab independently.

5, pages 5-5 to 5-12


pre-lab quiz 6


Enzyme Behavior. (Plotting and Graphing Data)

Read pages 104-107 in your text prior to this lab.

**This particular lab will be turned in by all students and graded. It is important not to miss it. It cannot be made up.

Goggles must be worn.



pre-lab quiz 7


Cellular Respiration. (Plotting and Graphing Data). Cellular respiration (lecture).

**This particular lab will be turned in and graded. It is important not to miss it. It cannot be made up.

11 3/29


(3/31 is a flex day)

The Respiratory System

Read pages 281-289 in your text prior to this lab.

Videotape--Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Bring your text, photo atlas and a ruler to lab today.

(Lab tech's: Note split dates for this lab.)



pre-lab quiz 8


The Heart and Blood Circulation. (Transport)

QUIZ #6. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020.

Read pages 213-222 in your text prior to this lab.

Bring your text, photo atlas and a ruler to lab today.

Goggles must be worn.



pre-lab quiz 9


Excretory System. (Disposal of Wastes and Regulation of Body Fluids. Section V02 is doing two labs today.

QUIZ #7. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020.

Read pages 299-311 in your text prior to this lab.

Videotape--Cycles of Life: Digestion and Fluid Balance (MV 22924)

Bring your text, photo atlas and a ruler to lab today.

Goggles must be worn.

  **4/19 **4/21 Holidays  


pre-lab quiz 10


DNA Fingerprinting

QUIZ #8. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020. Next prelab quiz contains material about the field trip from the website.

Read page 527-528, 537 in your text prior to this lab.

Videotape--Murder, Rape and DNA (MV 21785)

Distribute Sunol information.



pre-lab quiz 11


Ecology Laboratory. Field trip to Sunol Regional Wilderness

Local plant communities. Nomenclature. Taxonomy. Read pages 6-9, 562-565 and 722-729 in text.

The field trip begins at Sunol. YOU ARE EXPECTED TO ATTEND THE FIELD TRIP AND ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MATERIAL CONCERNING IT. If it is not possible for you to participate in the field trip, a library research paper will be assigned. YOU MUST LET ME KNOW IN ADVANCE that you will not be attending to take advantage of this option. Wear walking shoes or hiking boots and long pants. No sandals. Bring water, sunscreen, hat and insect repellant



pre-lab quiz 12


Mendel's Laws of Inheritance

QUIZ #9. Bring a 20-question brown Scan-Tron, # 2020.



3:30 pm


3:30 pm

Final Laboratory Examination

Bring a 100 question green Scan-Tron, a #2 pencil, an eraser. This is a comprehensive examination which covers all of the laboratories and the field trip. It does not cover lecture material.


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Your final grade in this course will be based on the scores of your examinations in the lecture/discussion portion (60%) and your performance in the laboratory portion (40%) as follows:

Category Percentage Points
Hour examinations (there are three, two are counted)



Final examination



In-class quizzes/lab activities (all are counted)



Lecture/Discussion Total



Category Percentage Points
Laboratory final examination



Laboratory quizzes (there are nine, seven are counted)  6.2%   70 
Laboratory reports (there are two)



Pre-lab quizzes (there are twelve, ten are counted)



Laboratory attendance



Laboratory Total



Class Total:
Category Points
 Lecture/Discussion Total


 Laboratory Total


 Class Total


If you earn 975 points you will receive an A; 852 = B; 728 = C; 615 = D. Each total includes ALL of the 100 lab attendance points. To earn a/an A, B, C, or D, you must have the 100 laboratory points. A maximum of 20 extra-credit points may be earned by presenting an ORAL report on 8 March (V01), 10 March (V02). The article must be approved in advance. Refer to the deadline date for approval in the lab schedule. Approvals are not available after the deadline. The number of points you earn reflects the quality of the presentation and the difficulty of the article. A page of instructions on how to do these reports is attached. Difficult articles and good presentations earn more points."Stars" are awarded for answering questions correctly in lecture or lab, good technique, good drawings. Stars translate into extra-credit points at the end of the semester. Your letter grade for each item will be indicated when it is returned. Scores are posted on Blackboard.

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Ground Rules:

1. Laboratories. Attendance at laboratories is mandatory. If you are going to miss a lab or miss a lab, it may be possible to do the lab with the other section. Check with the instructor in advance, if possible. MISSED LABS OTHERWISE MAY NOT BE MADE UP unless you provide a note from your physician or can otherwise document in writing your absence.Twenty points will be subtracted for each missed lab from your laboratory attendance points. If you leave the lab early, you will NOT be given credit for doing the lab. Attendance is taken during the last 20 minutes of lab.

Pre-lab outlines are provided. They are posted on Blackboard prior to class. It is suggested that you print them out and bring them to lab. Some of the questions on the pre-lab quizzes will come from these.

A sheep heart and kidney will be dissected in the laboratory of this class. If you feel that you will be unable to, at a minimum, observe the dissection, you should consider another laboratory science class. Models or the computer may not be substituted.

Shoes with open toes and/or heels will not be allowed in the laboratory and goggles must be worn for labs involving chemicals or dissections. We will provide used goggles or you may bring your own. They must fit against your face. If you wear shoes with open toes and/or heels, you will not be permitted to do the lab. No eating or drinking is permitted in the laboratory. This includes water.

Nine quizzes will be given concerning laboratory material; seven of these will be counted. The lowest two scores will be dropped, if you have taken all nine. NO MAKE-UP QUIZZES WILL BE GIVEN UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES.

If you are late to lab, you will miss the quiz. If you are significantly late, the points you receive for the lab will be reduced.

Twelve pre-lab quizzes will be given concerning laboratory material; ten of these will be counted. They must be completed by 10:30 on Tuesday of each week. The lowest two scores will be dropped, if you have taken all twelve. NO MAKE-UP QUIZZES WILL BE GIVEN UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. You will complete the quizzes online in Blackboard. The first quiz is for extra credit.

You may not be able to complete all of the labs during the scheduled three hour laboratory and will have to return to complete them.

Late lab reports are not accepted. The original signed data sheets must be included for you to receive credit for the report. Lab reports must be submitted to prior to the class when they are due as well as to the instructor (hard copy) in order for you to receive credit for the report. You will receive a zero, if the entire report (including answers to the questions) has not been submitted by the due date at the beginning of class.

For some laboratories you may be randomly assigned to groups. You will work together and write a single report. All students in the group will receive the same grade. As part of the report you will include a work sheet signed by all members of the group indicating the share of the work each individual did on the assigment. If there is a problem with a member of your group, you need to let me know before the report is due.

2. Lecture, Examinations and Quizzes. Lecture outlines are provided. They are posted on Blackboard prior to class. It is suggested that you print them out and bring them to class. Three hour examinations in lecture will be given. If you take all three examinations, your lowest score will be dropped. If you miss an exam, that is your lowest score. No make-up examinations will be given. If you anticipate missing the final lecture examination, please inform the instructor in advance. If you are ill and miss the final lecture or lab examination, you MUST email me that day and include the reason for your absence and a phone number where you can be reached. Twenty points will be deducted from your score unless you can document that you have been under the care of a physician. Failure to attend the final examination may result in a letter grade of "F", if arrangements are not made that day or before.

In-class quizzes are unannounced. You will be able to work with other classmates to answer the questions but not use your notes or the text. If you miss the class, you will receive a zero for the quiz. These quizzes cannot be made up.

3. Excessive Absence. If you are absent for a total of four consecutive or six cumulative hours and/or two consecutive weeks, you may be dropped from the class unless you have satisfactorily explained your absences to the instructor. It is important to recognize that the instructor cannot drop you after the "W" deadline.

4. Dropping the Class. If you decide not to continue in the class, please use CLASS-Web or go to Admissions and Records and drop yourself. You do not need to involve the instructor. Do not assume that the instructor will drop you for not attending the class.

5. Inappropriate Behavior. If your behavior is disruptive or immature, you will be asked to leave the class and to see the instructor before returning. If the behavior continues, the Division Dean will be notified.

6. Cheating. If you are caught cheating, a report may be submitted to the Dean of Student Services for investigation and disciplinary action. Examples of cheating: copying test answers or quiz answers, copying the answers to the genetics problems, copying the lab report or data of another student, copying material verbatim out of a book, not giving credit to information sources in lab reports. If you either give your lab report to another student or copy a lab report or portions of it, you will receive a zero for the report. If you copy quiz or test answers from another student, or change answers on a returned quiz/exam, the grade for that quiz/exam will constitute one of the dropped grades.

7. Manners and success tips. Be on time. Don't come in late and slam the door or scrape your chair on the floor. Enter quietly. Come to every class. Read all of the assignments. It is especially important to read the labs in advance. Highlight before the lab, tasks and questions to be answered. Take notes and read them as soon as possible after each class. Make an outline of the important points in the lecture. Clarify what you do not understand--come to office hours, send an email, form a study group, sign up for a tutor in the Assessment and Tutorial Center (Room 2401). Resist the urge to fall asleep. Not only will you not learn anything while snoozing, but also it really annoys the instructor (something you want to avoid). Bring something to write with and on. Bring Scan-Tron sheets on days when we have quizzes or exams. Make sure your pencil is sharpened before the instructor begins. Tearing open your candy bar wrapper or chips bag and chewing loudly are disrupting to the class.

Cell phones must be put away during lecture and lab. Reading your messages or text messaging during class is not aceptable behavior and may result in 20 points being deducted from your total accumuated points.

You may not eat or drink anything in the laboratory, including water. On laboratory days you must wear shoes with closed toes and heels or you will not be allowed to enter the lab.


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1. Select an article from a current (published within the last three years) periodical that relates to the course you are taking. (If you are in Botany, it should be about some botanical or ecological problem or principle.) Examples of periodicals in the Las Positas LRC that may be used are:

 Sample Periodicals:

 Sample Periodicals:

American Forests National Geographic
Audubon National Wildlife
Bioscience Natural History
California Wild Nature
Chemical and Engineering News Nature Conservancy
 Discover Science
 Environment Scientific American
 JAMA Sierra

Livermore, Dublin and Pleasanton Libraries are also sources of science periodicals. EBSCO host is a good source of articles. Go to the Library section of the LPC website. Go to Data Bases Alphabetical, Academic Search Premier, Log in. Check the box for Scholarly Journals and limit the search to within three years.

2. The article must be at least three pages long. Short newspaper articles are not acceptable, nor are articles from popular magazines such as Reader's Digest, Muscle and Fitness, Good Housekeeping. Online journals or periodicals from the internet may be used; however, you may not give a report simply about information from a particular website. Acceptable sites should have a date and volume. If you are not certain, ask your instructor before the deadline date for approval.

3. Read the article to make certain you understand basically what it is about. (It is impossible to present an oral report on something that makes no sense to you.)

4. Bring the article (or a copy) to lab on the deadline date or before; this is usually one-two weeks before the reports are scheduled. Your article must be approved by the instructor in advance. Approvals will not be given after the deadline nor without the article.

5. You may use notes and audiovisual material. If you require media equipment, you need to inform the instructor one class period in advance of the presentation. Make certain before the day of the presentation that one of the computers will read your file (we have old software on old computers). If your are using the latest version of PowerPoint, you will probably need to save your presentation in an older version. Be sure to test this before the day of the presentation.

6. Your report should last 10-15 minutes. Make certain you announce the name of the article, author(s) and the date of the periodical. Give a summary of the important points in the article.

7. No written material is to be turned in. This is not intended to be a research paper on a particular subject. Only one article is to be used.Turn in a copy of the original article.

8. Points are awarded based on the difficulty of the article, use of audiovisual materials and the quality of the presentation. Try not to simply read from your notes.

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